Science takes you on a journey to discover the wonders of the universe. On this journey, you’ll study living things like animals and nonliving things like planets.
The charts and lists in this chapter give you facts about some of the living and nonliving things you will study in science. They include facts about dinosaurs and other animals and a chart comparing and contrasting the planets of the solar system. You’ll also get help with measurements and find tips for nutrition.
Systems of the Human Body
Each body system has a different job. The circulatory system pumps blood. The nervous system lets you think, sense, and move. The respiratory system lets you breathe.
The digestive system processes food. The skeletal system holds you up. The muscular system lets you move. How many parts of these systems do you know about?
Diet and Nutrition
What we eat matters. Certain food groups help us grow, learn, and stay healthy.
Nutritionists created this icon to remind us of what a balanced diet looks like. It includes a mix of five food groups—fruits, vegetables, grains, protein, and dairy. These food groups are the building blocks of a healthy diet.
10 Tips for Healthy Eating
1. Make half your plate fruits and vegetables.
Check your portion sizes. Is half your meal made up of fruits and veggies?
2. Eat whole grains.
Try whole-wheat bread, cereal, and pasta. These foods help with digestion.
3. Choose water instead of soda.
Water keeps you hydrated. It is also better for your teeth than sugary drinks.
4. Eat lean meat for strength.
Protein makes you strong. Chicken, fish, turkey, beans, and lean beef and pork are packed with protein.
5. Snack smartly.
Don’t fill up on snacks before meals, and avoid sugary and overly salty snacks.
6. Cut back on sweets.
Here are some tasty alternatives: yogurt, raisins, string cheese, fruit, or vegetable sticks.
7. Don’t forget dairy.
Pair your meal with a cup of low fat milk or soy milk.
8. Slow down while you eat.
Eat slowly to fully enjoy your food. This will help you know when you’re full.
9. Help out in the kitchen.
Ask a parent if you can assist with cooking or grocery shopping.
10. Combine diet and exercise.
Eating well and exercise are keys to good health.
If you’re allergic to certain types of food, avoid eating them. Ask your parent about what food to avoid.
Here are some basic units in the United States system of measurement.